Environmentally certified products
The environmental certification of products is currently covered
by the following international standards. In the UK BRE
Certification has launched a scheme for assessing the Environmental
Profiles of construction products.
ISO 14020: Environmental labels and declarations - General
States that environmental labels and declarations are one of the
tools of environmental management. They provide information about a
product or service in terms of its overall environmental
•Environmental labels and declarations shall be accurate,
verifiable, relevant and not misleading.
•Based on scientific methodology.
There are 9 principles.
ISO 14021: Environmental labels and declarations Self-declared
environmental claim - Type II environmental labelling
This standard specifies requirements for self-declared
environmental claims, including statements, symbols and graphics,
•Selected terms commonly used in self-declared environmental
claims (designed for disassembly, recyclable, reduced energy
•An environmental claim that is vague or non-specific or which
broadly implies that a product is environmentally beneficial or
environmentally benign shall not be used.
•When a self-declared environmental claim is made, the use of a
symbol is optional.
•The claimant shall be responsible for evaluation and provision
of data necessary for the verification of self-declared
ISO 14024: Environmental labels and declarations - Type I
environmental labelling - Principles and procedures
This standard establishes the principles and procedures for
developing Type I environmental labelling programmes, and the
certification procedures for awarding the label.
•Ecolabelling body: third party body, and its agents, which
conducts a Type I environmental labelling programme.
•Licensee: party authorized by an ecolabelling body to use a
Type I environmental label.
•Certification: procedure by which a third party gives written
assurance that a product, process or service conforms to specified
•License: document by which an ecolabelling body grants to a
person or body the right to use the label for its products or
ISO/FDIS 14025: Environmental labels and declarations - Type
III environmental declarations - Principles and procedures
This standard establishes the principles and specifies the
procedures for developing Type III environmental declaration
programmes and Type III environmental declarations"
•Type III environmental declarations present quantified
environmental information on the life cycle of a product (based on
independently verified LCA data, LCI data or information modules in
accordance with the ISO 14040 series) to enable comparisons between
products fulfilling the same function.
•Type III environmental declarations are primarily intended for
use in business-to-business communication, but their use in
business-to-consumer communication is not precluded.
•Type III environmental declarations are intended to allow a
purchaser or user to compare the environmental performance of
products on a life cycle basis.
ISO 14040: Environmental management Life cycle assessment -
Principles and framework
This standard specifies the general framework, principles and
requirements for conducting and reporting life cycle assessment
(1) Life cycle assessment (LCA) Compilation and evaluation of
the inputs, outputs and the potential environmental Impacts of a
product system throughout its life cycle
(2) Life cycle inventory analysis (LCI) Phase of LCA involving
the compilation and quantification of inputs and outputs, for a
given product system throughout its life cycle
(3) Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) Phase of LCA aimed at
understanding and evaluating the magnitude and significance of the
potential environmental impacts of a product system
(4) Life cycle interpretation
(6) Critical review
ISO 14041: Environmental management - Life cycle assessment -
Goal and scope definition and inventory analysis
This standard specifies the requirements and procedures
necessary for the compilation and preparation of the definition of
goal and scope for LCA, and for performing, interpreting and
reporting a LCI analysis"
(1) The goal and scope definition phase determines why LCA is
being conducted and describe the system and the data categories
(2) LCI involves the collection of the data necessary to meet
the goals of the defined study
ISO 14042: Environmental management - Life cycle assessment -
Life cycle impact assessment
This standard describes and gives guidance on a general
framework for the life cycle impact assessment phase of LCA, and
the key features and inherent limitations of LCIA.
(2) Impact category (class representing environmental issues of
concern to which LCI results may be assigned: ex. GWP)
(3) Category indicator (quantifiable representation of an impact
category: ex. CO2 in GWP)
(4) Category endpoint (attribute or aspects of natural
environment, human health or resources, identifying an
environmental issue of concern)
ISO 14043: Environmental management - Life cycle assessment -
Life cycle interpretation
Describes the final phase of the life cycle assessment (LCA)
procedure, in which the results of a life cycle inventory analysis
(LCI) and if conducted of a life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), or
both, are summarised and discussed as a basis for conclusions,
recommendations and decision-making in accordance with the goal and
(1) identification of the significant issues based on the
results of the LCI and LCIA phases of LCA
(2) evaluation which considers completeness, sensitivity and
(3) conclusions, recommendations and reporting
ISO/FDIS 14044: Environmental management - Life cycle
assessment - Requirements and guidelines
This standard specifies the requirements and provides guideline
for LCA" (New version of ISO14040)
ISO 14050: Environmental management - Vocabulary
Contains definitions of fundamental concepts related to
environmental management, published in the ISO 14000 series.
(1) Environmental aspect: element of an organization's
activities, products or services that can interact with the
(2) Environmental impact: any change to the environment, whether
adverse or beneficial, wholly or partially resulting from an
organization's activities, products or services
(3) Environmental performance: results of an organization's
management of its environmental aspects
ISO/TR 14062: Environmental management - Integrating
environmental aspects into product design and development
This standard describes concepts and current practices relating
to the integration of environmental aspects into product design and
development, where "product" is understood to cover both goods and
(1) The goal of integrating environmental aspects into product
design and development is the reduction of adverse environmental
impacts of products throughout their entire life cycles.
(2) In striving for this goal, multiple benefits can be achieved
for the organization, its competitiveness, customers and other
stakeholders. The object of the ISO 14000 Series is industrial
products (Services are also included, but not Buildings)
ISO 15686-6: Buildings and constructed assets - Service life
planning - Part 6: Procedures for considering environmental
This standard describe how to assess, at the design stage, the
potential environmental impacts of alternative designs of a
(1) The assessment of environmental impacts of a design option
should be performed in parallel with technical and economic
(2) In order to make meaningful comparisons of options, their
functional equivalency should be determined.
(3) Requirements regarding environmental impact may be expressed
of substances, including hazardous and toxic emissions, and use of
land and impact on biodiversity.
(4) LCA is a technique for assessing the environmental aspects
and potential impacts associated with a product by LCI, LCIA and LC
(5) When implementing LCA in Service Life Planning (SLP), it is
anticipated that, in most situations, the LCA will not be performed
within the procedure.
Therefore the above requirement can seldom be met in practice.
Rather, existing data sets should be considered and combined in
order to model the current design option.
To allow this kind of approach, it is a precondition that the
applied LCA data sets are following an LCA routine that is
conforming to the ISO 14040 series, and that it is harmonized
further than the requirements of these standards. To allow the
application of LCA-based information in the context of SLP,
information is required to meet requirements following a harmonized
programme conforming to ISO/TR 14025 or sector-specific
requirements conforming, for example, ISO/DIS 21930*("Environmental
Declarations of Building Products" prepared by WG3 of ISO/TC59/SC17
: Building construction/ Sustainability in building
* ISO/DIS21930: Type II LCA environmental declaration of
building products contents of declaration: environmental impacts
(CO2 etc.), use of resources and generation of waste, emissions to
water, soil and indoor air and others (biodiversity etc.). This
forms the basis of the work of CEN/TC350.